Rio – Summit fishy going on…
Reprinted from The Common Good, No 61, Pentecost 2012
Conversations you have in the hot pools at Ngawha Springs, in the north of New Zealand, have an air of unreality about them. Precisely because they are real. People say what they think without any attempt at manipulating or massaging the message. These conversations can be as informative as they are startling. You look at life right in the eye, and then are left to ponder what to do about it.
I asked one individual what he had been up to during the day. ‘Shooting ducks.’ ‘You like eating ducks then?’ ‘No, it’s the killing I enjoy.’ I must have looked startled, even through the steam. He wanted to set my mind at ease. ‘I’m into conservation too.’ he went on. ‘One of my mates has set aside 500 acres where the pheasants are protected so they can breed.’ He thought, then added wistfully, ‘When they open it up the shooting will be fantastic.’
Rio+20 was a world in denial, confused by all the smoke and mirrors of green economics, and completely lacking the honesty you find at Ngawha Springs. At UNCED in 1992 we were eyeballing life and getting on with it. Those of us involved in ending the Cold War believed that anything was possible, and sorting out the environmental mess was just a process of getting on with the job. Tough, but possible. We knew you had to be focused and to see clearly.
Rio+20 seemed to be only pretending to be concerned about the environment. Rather like those academic conferences where participants are focused on advancing their careers rather than changing the world. Before UNCED 1992 we had done our homework, and afterwards we followed through on what had been achieved. In Rio we convinced Susan Maxman to bring the issues forward to the UIA/AIA Congress the following year, and New Zealand played a leading role in that Congress. Back home the 1993 Papatuanuku Conference polarised the architectural profession. The seeds for Enviroschools were planted. All over the world Agenda 21 offices were opened up as local governments everywhere tackled the issues we had raised.
The decision makers at Rio+20 seemed in contrast to have lost touch with the realities of both the natural and the built environment. Our Environment Minister Amy Adams, for example, went all the way to Rio to say that there were important domestic imperatives for protecting oceans, such as fishing.
Not ‘from fishing’ apparently. It seemed that it was the killing she enjoyed. Meanwhile ‘The World Bank was seeking an initial $250 million of funding which it would use to leverage $1.2 billion from businesses, NGOs and other organisations.’ Did they really mean that volunteer NGOs were now to take time out from protecting the environment to provide money for the fat cats in the World Bank? What the money would be used for was not clear. Indeed nothing at Rio+20 was very clear. It was just a gigantic public relations junket. A significant negative cost to the environment.
The World Bank had launched their Global Partnership for Oceans last February, but only eight countries signed up, so that was a fizzer. New Zealand was one of those countries, but it would seem we did so just to get some political mileage. In a speech to the summit Amy Adams proudly spoke of the 8% of New Zealand’s territorial waters protected by reserves. Green MP Kennedy Graham, who also travelled to Rio de Janeiro, pointed out that just 0.41% of the country’s Exclusive Economic Zone was protected. Debating statistics became just a cover for opening up Antarctica waters for oil exploration or destroying what was left of the Kermadec Trench.
Gwynne Dyer noted that ‘the final document contained the verb reaffirm 59 times. In effect, some 50,000 people from 192 countries travelled to Rio de Janeiro to reaffirm what had been agreed there 20 years ago.’ The text said fundamental changes were needed but gave no idea as to what they might be. He noted that people ‘are already dying from the effects of environmental destruction in poor countries, but that makes no difference because they are powerless.’
What Rio+20 really did was to reaffirm the power-base which was supporting both the architecture of power and the way in which it was destroying the natural environment. Gwynne Dyer rued that ‘few leaders of the main powers even bothered to attend.’ They did not need to. Hundreds of large corporations were represented at Rio+20 and they came away happier than anyone else. Business as usual had been confirmed. Rio+20 confirmed the right of multinationals to set the agendas, rather than governments.
Even those we might have looked to for leadership seemed to have sold out. Janez Potocnik, the EU Environment Commissioner talked about how a green economy would lead to salvation. It felt as though John Key might have written it. ‘Rio+20 has turned into an epic failure. It has failed on equity, failed on ecology, and failed on economy,’ said Kumi Naidou, executive director of Greenpeace.
At UNCED in 1992 ‘there was plenty of energy and hope around’. At UNCED we knew what we wanted to achieve and we got on with the job. Our arguments were convincing and the nations of the world signed up. By Rio+20 no one was interested any more. In the period between the two conferences we had lost three million square kilometres of forest, along with any sense of urgency. Greenhouse gas emissions had risen by 48%, and the wealthy were now more comfortable than they had ever been. Gwynne Dwyer noted that ‘Politicians are always reluctant to be linked to lost causes, and the struggle against poverty and environmental destruction now seemed to fall into that category.’
As Rio+20 came to a close George, the last remaining Pinta Island tortoise, died on Santa Cruz Island. Another species came to an end. Rio+20 moved the world a little closer to the day when the human species too would quietly become extinct.
It would be good news if we had at least agreed at Rio+20 to leave intact the wonderful planet we have been privileged to live on, and only set about destroying ourselves. The New Zealand government celebrated the end of Rio+20 by allowing mining exploration in the marine mammal sanctuaries that protect rare dolphins, whales and seals. The New Zealand Conservation Minister, Kate Wilkinson, pointed out that steps would be taken to minimise harm.
We could do with some of the honesty you find at Ngawha Springs. It’s the killing we enjoy.
Tony Watkins is an Auckland emeritus professor of architecture and town planning. This article is reprinted from Tui Motu, August 2012, with permission.